11th Class Syllabus

Accountancy

Course Structure

Unit Topic Marks
Part A Financial Accounting – I
1. Theoretical Framework 15
2. Accounting Process 35
Part B Financial Accounting – II
3. Financial Statements of Sole Proprietorship 15
4. Financial Statements of Non-Profits 15
5. Computers in Accounting 10
Part C Project Work 10
Total Marks 100

Part A: Financial Accounting – I (50 Marks)

Unit 1: Theoretical Framework

Introduction to Accounting

  • Accounting: objectives, advantages and limitations, types of accounting information; users of accounting information and their needs.
  • Basic accounting terms: business transaction, account, capital, drawings, liability (Non – current and current); asset (Non – current; tangible and intangible assets and current assets), receipts (capital and revenue), expenditure (capital, revenue and deferred), expense, income, profits, gains and losses, purchases, purchases returns, sales, sales returns, stock, trade receivables (debtors and bills receivable), trade payables (creditors and bills payable), goods, cost, vouchers, discount – trade and cash.

Theory Base of Accounting

  • Fundamental accounting assumptions: going concern, consistency, and accrual.
  • Accounting principles: accounting entity, money measurement, accounting period, full disclosure, materiality, prudence, cost concept, matching concept and dual aspect.
  • Bases of accounting – cash basis and accrual basis.
  • Accounting Standards and IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards): Concept and Objectives

Unit 2: Accounting Process

Recording of Transactions

  • Accounting equation: analysis of transactions using accounting equation.
  • Rules of debit and credit: for assets, liabilities, capital, revenue and expenses
  • Origin of transactions- source documents (invoice, cash memo, pay in slip, cheque), preparation of vouchers – cash (debit and credit) and non cash (transfer).
  • Books of original entry: format and recording – Journal.
  • Cash Book: Simple Cash Book, Cash Book with Discount Column and Cash Book with Bank and Discount Columns, Petty Cash Book.
  • Other books: purchases book, sales book, purchases returns book, sales returns book and journal proper.

Preparation of Bank Reconciliation Statement, Ledger and Trial Balance.

  • Bank reconciliation statement- calculating bank balance at accounting date: need and preparation. Corrected cash book balance.
  • Ledger – format, posting from journal, cash book and other special purpose books, balancing of accounts.
  • Trial balance: objectives and preparation

(Scope: Trial Balance with balance method only)

Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves

  • Depreciation: concept need and factors affecting depreciation; methods of computation of depreciation: straight line method, written down value method (excluding change in method)
  • Accounting treatment of depreciation: by charging to asset account, by creating provision for depreciation/ accumulated depreciation account, treatment of disposal of asset.
  • Provisions and reserves: concept, objectives and difference between provisions and reserves; types of reserves- revenue reserve, capital reserve, general reserve and specific reserves.

Accounting for Bills of Exchange

  • Bills of exchange and promissory note: definition, features, parties, specimen and distinction.
  • Important terms : term of bill, due date, days of grace, date of maturity, discounting of bill, endorsement of bill, bill sent for collection, dishonour of bill, noting of bill, retirement and renewal of a bill.
  • Accounting treatment of bill transactions.

Rectification of Errors

  • Errors: types-errors of omission, commission, principles, and compensating; their effect on Trial Balance.
  • Detection and rectification of errors; preparation of suspense account.

Part B: Financial Accounting – II (40 Marks)

Unit 3: Financial Statements of Sole Proprietorship

  • Financial Statements: objective and importance.
  • Profit and loss account: gross profit, operating profit and net profit.
  • Balance Sheet: need, grouping, marshalling of assets and liabilities.
  • Adjustments in preparation of financial statements : with respect to closing stock, outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued income, income received in advance, depreciation, bad debts, provision for doubtful debts, provision for discount on debtors, manager’s commission, abnormal loss, goods taken for personal use and goods distributed as free samples.
  • Preparation of Trading and Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet of sole proprietorship.
  • Incomplete records: use and limitations. Ascertainment of profit/loss by statement of affairs method.

Unit 4: Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations

  • Not-for-profit organizations: concept.
  • Receipts and Payment account: features.
  • Income and Expenditure account: features. Preparation of Income and Expenditure account and Balance Sheet from the given Receipts and Payments account with additional information.

Scope:

  1. Adjustments in a question should not exceed 3 or 4 in number and restricted to subscriptions, consumption of consumables, and sale of assets/ old material.
  2. Entrance/ admission fees and general donations are to be treated as revenue receipts.
  3. Trading Account of incidental activities is not to be prepared.

Unit 5: Computers in Accounting

  • Introduction to Computer and Accounting Information System {AIS}: Introduction to computers (Elements, Capabilities, Limitations of Computer system),
  • Introduction to operating software, utility software and application software. Introduction to Accounting Information System (AIS), as a part of MIS
  • Automation of Accounting Process. Meaning
  • Stages in automation (a) Accounting process in a computerised environment (Comparison between manual accounting process and Computerised accounting process.) (b) Sourcing of accounting Software (Kinds of software: readymade software; customised software and tailor-made software; Generic Considerations before sourcing accounting software)(c)Creation of Account groups and hierarchy ( d) Generation of reports -Trial balance, Profit and Loss account and Balance Sheet.

Scope:

  • The scope of the unit is to understand accounting as an information system for the generation of accounting information and preparation of accounting reports.
  • It is presumed that the working knowledge of Tally software will be given to the students for the generation of accounting software. For this, the teachers may refer Chapter 4 of Class XII NCERT textbook on Computerized Accounting System.

Part C: Project Work (10 Marks)

Any One:

  1. Collection of Source Documents,Preparation of Vouchers, Recording of Transactions with the help of vouchers.
  2. Preparation of Bank Reconciliation Statement with the given cash book and the pass book with twenty to twenty-five transactions.
  3. Comprehensive project starting with journal entries regarding any sole proprietorship business, posting them to the ledger and preparation of Trial balance.The students will then prepare Trading and Profit and Loss Account on the basis of the prepared trial balance. Expenses, incomes and profit (loss) are to be depicted using pie chart / bar diagram.

 

Biology

Course Structure

Unit Title Marks
1. Diversity of Living Organisms 7
2. Structural Organisation in Plants & Animals 11
3. Cell: Structure and Function 15
4. Plant Physiology 17
5. Human Physiology (A) – Section for OTBA

Human Physiology (B)

*10+10
Total 70

*This section will be assesed through OTBA only.

Unit I: Diversity of Living Organism

Chapter-1: The Living World

What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy-museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.

Chapter-2: Biological Classification

Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.

Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom

Salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms – classification upto class, characteristic features and examples.

Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom

Salient features and classification of animals non chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (three to five salient features and at least two examples of each category).

 (No live animals or specimen should be displayed.)

Unit 2: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

Morphology and modifications: Tissues

Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).

Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals

Animal tissues: Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (a brief account only)

Unit 3: Cell Structure and Function

Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

Chapter-9: Biomolecules

Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, types, properties, enzyme action.

Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

Unit 4: Plant Physiology

Chapter-11: Transport in Plants

Transport in plants; Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata;Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem transport, massflow hypothesis; diffusion of gases.

Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition

Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Photosynthesis as a mean of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.

Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants

Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.

Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development

Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.

Unit 5: Human Physiology (A)

Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption

Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.

Chapter-17: Breating and Exchange of Gases

Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation

Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

Human Physiology (B)

Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination

Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin – angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders – uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney.

Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement

Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle-contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.

Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination

Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear.

Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary Idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addision’s disease.

Business Stu.

Course Structure

Unit Topic Marks
Part A Foundations of Business
1. Nature and Purpose of Business 20
2. Forms of Business Organisations
3. Public, Private and Global Enterprises 18
4. Business Service
5. Emerging Modes of Business 12
6. Social Responsibility and Business Ethics
Part B Finance and Trade
7. Sources of Business Finance 20
8. Small Business
9. Internal Trade 20
10. International Business
11. Project Work 10
Total 100 

Unit 1: Nature and Purpose of Business

  • Concept and characteristics of business.
  • Business, profession and employment – Meaning and their distinctive features.
  • Objectives of business – Economic and social, role of profit in business.
  • Classification of business activities: Industry and Commerce.
  • Industry – types: primary, secondary, tertiary – Meaning and sub types.
  • Commerce – trade: types (internal, external, wholesale and retail; and auxiliaries to trade: banking, insurance, transportation, warehousing, communication, and advertising.
  • Business risks – Meaning, nature and causes.

Unit 2: Forms of Business organizations

  • Sole Proprietorship – meaning, features, merits and limitations.
  • Partnership – Features, types, merits and limitations of partnership and partners, registration of a partnership firm, partnership deed. Type of partners.
  • Hindu Undivided Family Business: features.
  • Cooperative Societies- features, types, merits and limitations.
  • Company: private and public company -features, merits and limitations.
  • Formation of a company- four stages, important document (MOA, AOA, relevances of certificate of incorporation and certificate of commencement.
  • Starting a business – Basic factors.

Unit 3: Public, Private and Global Enterprises

  • Private sector and public sector enterprises.
  • Forms of public sector enterprises: features, merits and limitations of departmental undertakings, statutory corporation and Government Company.
  • Changing role of public sector enterprises.
  • Global enterprises, Joint ventures, Public Private Partnership – Features

Unit 4: Business Services

  • Banking: Types of bank accounts- savings, current, recurring, fixed deposit and multiple option deposit account.
  • Banking services with particular reference to issue of bank draft, banker’s cheque (pay order), RTGS (Real Time Gross Settlement) NEFT (National Electronic Funds Transfer), bank overdraft, cash credits and e- banking.
  • Insurance: principles, concept of life, health, fire and marine insurance.
  • Postal and telecom services: mail (UPC, registered post, parcel, speed post and courier) and other services.

Unit 5: Emerging Modes of Business

  • E-business – scope and benefits, resources required for successful e-business implementation, online transactions, payment mechanism, security and safety of business transactions.
  • Outsourcing-concept, need and scope of BPO (business process outsourcing) and KPO (knowledge process outsourcing).
  • Smart cards and ATM’s meaning and utility

Unit 6: Social Responsibility of Business and Business Ethics

  • Concept of social responsibility
  • Case for social responsibility
  • Responsibility towards owners, investors, consumers, employees, government and community
  • Environment protection and business

Unit 7: Sources of Business Finance

  • Concept of business finance
  • Owner’s funds – equity shares, preference share, GDR, ADR, IDR and retained earnings.
  • Borrowed funds: debentures and bonds, loan from financial institution, loans from commercial banks, public deposits, trade credit, ICD (inter corporate deposits).

Unit 8: Small Business

  • Small scale enterprise as defined by MSMED Act 2006 (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Development Act).
  • Role of small business in India with special reference to rural areas.
  • Government schemes and agencies for small scale industries: (National Small Industries Corporation) and DIC (District Industrial Center) with special reference to rural, backward and hilly areas.

Unit 9: Internal Trade

  • Services rendered by a wholesaler and a retailer
  • Types of retail – trade – Itinerant and small scale fixed shops
  • Large scale retailers – Departmental stores, chain stores, mail order business
  • Concept of automatic vending machine
  • Chambers of Commerce and Industry: Basic functions
  • Main documents used in internal trade: Performa invoice, invoice, debit note, credit note. LR (Lorry receipt) and RR (Railway Receipt)
  • Terms of Trade: COD (Cash on Delivery), FOB (Free on Board), CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight), E&OE (Errors and Omissions Excepted)

Unit 10: International Trade

  • Meaning, difference between internal trade and external trade: Meaning and characteristics of international trade.
  • Problems of international trade: Advantages and disadvantages of international trade
  • Export Trade – Meaning, objective and procedure of Export Trade
  • Import Trade – Meaning, objective and procedure: Meaning and functions of import trade; purpose and procedure
  • Documents involved in International Trade; documents involved in export trade, indent, letter of credit, shipping order, shipping bills, mate’s receipt, bill of lading, certificate of origin, consular invoice, documentary bill of exchange (DA/DP), specimen, importance
  • World Trade Organization (WTO) meaning and objective

 

Chemistry

Course Structure

Unit Title Marks
I Basic Concepts of Chemistry 11
II Structure of Atom
III Classification of Elements & Periodicity in Properties 4
IV Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 21
V States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
VI Thermodynamics
VII Equilibrium
VIII Redox Reactions 16
IX Hydrogen
X s-Block Elements
XI Some p-Block Elements
XII Organic Chemistry: Basic Principles & Techniques 18
XIII Hydrocarbons
XIV Environmental Chemistry
Total 70

Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.

Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.

Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

Unit II: Structure of Atom

Discovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s model and its limitations. Rutherford’s model and its limitations, Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.

Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond; bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s,p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.

Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number, ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea)Liquid State- vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations)

Unit VI: Chemical Thermodynamics

Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.

First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat,  measurement of ?U and ?H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction)

Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb’s energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.

Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).

Unit VII: Equilibrium

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle, ionic equilibrium-ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, Henderson Equation, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

Unit VIII: Redox Reaction

Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications of redox reactions.

Unit IX: Hydrogen

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide -preparation, reactions and structure and use; hydrogen as a fuel.

Unit X: s -Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

Group 1 and Group 2 Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses.

Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds:

Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydrogencarbonate, Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium. Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate and their industrial uses, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.

Unit XI: Some p -Block Elements

General Introduction to p – Block Elements

Group 13 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron – physical and chemical properties, some important compounds, Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides, Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalies, uses.

Group 14 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements. Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses: Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites, their uses.

Unit XII: Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Technique

General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons

Classification of Hydrocarbons

Aliphatic Hydrocarbons:

Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.

Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.

Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.

Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry

Environmental pollution – air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategies for control of environmental pollution.

Computer Sci.

Course Structure

Unit Title Marks
1. Computer Fundamentals 10
2. Programming Methodology 12
3. Introduction to Python/C++ 18/14
4. Programming with Python/C++ 30/34
Total 70

Unit 1: Computer Fundamentals

Classification  of  computers: basics of computer and its operation; functional components and their interconnections, concept of booting.

Software concepts: Types of Software – system software, utility software and application software

System Software: Operating system, complier, interpreter and assembler

Operating System: Need for operating system, functions of operating system (processor management, memory management, file management and device management), types of operating system-interactive (GUI based), time sharing, real time and distributed, commonly used operating system: UNIX, LINUX, Windows, Solaris, BOSS (Bharat Operating System Solutions); Mobile OS –Android, Symbian.

Utility Software: Anti Virus, File Management tools, Compression tools and Disk Management tools (Disk Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter, Backup).

Open Source Concepts: Open source software, freeware, shareware, proprietary software.

Application Software: Office tools – word processor, presentation tool, spreadsheet package, database management system; domain specific tools – school management system, inventory management system, payroll system, financial accounting, hotel management, reservation system and weather forecasting system.

Number System: Binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal and conversion between two different number systems.

Internal Storage encoding of Characters: ASCII, ISCII (Indian Scripts Standard Code for Information Interchange), and UNICODE (for multilingual computing)

Microprocessor: Basic concepts, Clock speed (MHz, GHz), 16 bit, 32 bit, 64 bit, 128 bit processors; Types – CISC Processors (Complex Instruction Set Computing), RISC Processors (Reduced Instruction Set Computing), and EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing).

Memory Concepts: Units: Byte, Kilo Byte, Mega Byte, Giga Byte, Tera Byte, Peta Byte, Exa Byte, Zetta Byte, Yotta Byte.

Primary Memory: Cache, RAM, ROM

Secondary Memory: Fixed and Removable storage – Hard Disk Drive, CD/DVD Drive, Pen Drive, Blue Ray Disk.

Input Output Ports/ Connections: Serial, Parallel and Universal Serial Bus, PS-2 port, Infrared port, Bluetooth, Firewire.

Unit 2: Programming Methodology

General Concepts: Clarity and simplicity of expressions, Use of proper names for identifiers, comments, indentation; documentation and program maintenance; running and debugging programs, syntax errors, run-time errors, logical errors

Problem solving methodologies: Understanding of the problem, solution for the problem, breaking down solution into simple steps (modular approach), identification of arithmetic and logical operations required for solution; control structure- conditional control and looping (finite and infinite).

Problem Solving: Introduction to algorithms/flowcharts.

Unit 3: Introduction to Python

Getting Started: Introduction to Python – an integrated high level language, interactive mode and script mode. Data types –Number (Integer – boolean, decimal, octal, hexadecimal; Floating point; Complex), none, Sequence (String,Tuples, List ) Sets, Mapping.

Mutable and Immutable Variables

Variables, Expressions and Statements: Values, Variables and keywords; Operators and Operands in Python: (Arithmetic, relational and logical operators), operator precedence, Expressions and Statements (Assignment statement); Taking input (using raw_input() and input()) and displaying output (print statement); Putting Comments.

Functions: Importing Modules (entire module or selected objects), invoking built in functions, functions from math module (for example, ceil, floor, fabs, exp, log, log10, pow, sqrt, cos, sin, tan, degrees, radians), using random() and randint() functions of random module to generate random numbers, composition.

Defining functions, invoking functions, passing parameters (default parameter values, keyword arguments), scope of variables, void functions and functions returning values, flow of execution

Conditional constructs and looping: if else statement while, for (range function), break, continue, else, pass, nested if, nested loops, use of compound expression in conditional and looping construct.

Unit 4: Programming with Python

Strings: Creating, initialising and accessing the elements; string operators: +, *, in, not in, range slice [n:m]; comparing strings using relational operators; String functions & methods: len, capitalize, find, isalnum, isalpha, isdigit, lower, islower, isupper, upper, lstrip, rstrip, isspace, istitile, partition, replace, join, split, count, decode, encode, swapcase, String constants, Regular Expressions and Pattern Matching

Lists: Concept of mutable lists, creating, initializing and accessing the elements, traversing, appending, updating and deleting elements, composition, lists as arguments

List operations: joining, slicing, + , * , in , not in

List functions and methods: len( ), insert( ), append( ), extend( ), sort( ), remove( ), reverse( ), pop( ), list( ), count( ), extend( ), index( ), cmp( ), max( ), min( )

Dictionaries: Concept of key-value pair, creating, initialising and accessing the elements in a dictionary, traversing, appending updating and deleting elements

Dictionary Functions and methods: cmp( ), len( ), clear( ), get( ), has_key( ), items( ), key( ), update( ), values( ), pop( ), fromkeys( ), dict( )

Tuples: Immutable concept, creating, initialising and accessing elements in a tuple, Tuple assignment, Tuple slices, Tuple indexing,

Tuple Functions: cmp(), len(), max(), min(), tuple(), index(), count(), sum(), any(), all(), sorted(), reversed()

Unit 3: Introduction To C++

Getting Started: C++ character set, C++ Tokens (Identifiers, Keywords, Constants, Operators,), Structure of a C++ Program (include files, main function), Header files – iostream.h, iomanip.h, cout, cin; use of I/O operators (<<and>>), Use of endl and setw ( ), Cascading of I/O operators, compilation , Error Messages; Use of editor, basic commands of editor, compilation, linking and execution.

Data Types, Variables and Constants: Concept of Data types; Built-in Data types: char, int, float and double; Constants: Integer Constants, Character constants – \n, \t, \b), Floating Point Constants, String Constants; Access modifier; Variables of built-in-datatypes, Declaration/Initialization of variables, Assignment statement, Type modifier: signed, unsigned, long

Operator and Expressions: Operators: Arithmetic operators (-,+,*,/,%),Assignment operator(=),C++ shorthands (+=,- =,*=,/=,%=) Unary operator (-), Increment(++) and Decrement (–) Operators, Relation operator (>,>=,<=,=,!=), Logical operators (!,&&,II),Conditional operator; Precedence of Operators; Automatic type conversionin expressions, Type casting;

Unit 4: Programming In C++

Flow of control: 

Conditional statements: if else, Nested if, switch..case..default, Nestedswitch..case, break statement (to be used in switch..case only); Loops: while, do – while, for and Nested loops

Inbuilt Functions

  • Standard input/output functions – stdio.h: gets ( ), puts ( )
  • Character Functions – Ctype.h: isalnum ( ), isalpha ( ),isdigit ( ), islower ( ), isupper ( ), tolower ( ), toupper ( )
  • String Function – string.h: strcpy ( ), strcat ( ), strlen ( ), strcmp ( ), strcmpi ( ), strev ( ),strlen ( ), strupur ( ), strlwr ( )
  • Mathematical Functions – math.h: fabs ( ), pow ( ), sgrt ( ), sin ( ), cos ( ), abs ( )
  • Other Functions – stdlib.h: randomize ( ), random ( )

Introduction to user-defined function and its requirements.

Defining a function; function prototype, Invoking/calling a function, passing arguments to function, specifying argument data types, default argument, constant argument, call by value, call by reference, returning values from a function, scope rules; local and global variables.

Relating to Parameters and return type concepts in built-in functions.

Structured Data Type:

Arrays: Introduction to Array and its advantages.

One Dimensional Array: Declaration/initialization of One-dimensional array, inputting array elements, accessingarray elements, manipulation of array elements (sum of elements, product of elements, average of elements, linear search, finding maximum/minimum value)

Declaration / Initialization of a String, string manipulations (counting vowels/ consonants/ digits/ special characters, case conversion, reversing a string, reversing each word of a string

Two-dimensional Array: Declaration/initialization of a two-dimensional array,inputting array elements accessing array elements, manipulationof array elements (sum of row element, column elements, diagonal elements, finding maximum / minimum values)

User-defined Data Types: Introduction to user defined data types.

Structure: Defining a Structure, declaring structure variables,accessing structure elements, passing structure to functions as value and reference, function returning structure, array of structure

Defining a symbol name using typedef keyword and defining a macro using #define preprocessor directive.

Economics

Course Structure

Units Title Marks
Part A Statistics for Economics 
1. Introduction 13
2. Collection, Organisation and Presentation of Data
3. Statistical Tools and Interpretation 27
Part B Part B: Indian Economic Development
4. Development Experience (1947-90) and 13
Economic Reforms since 1991 12
5. Current Challenges facing Indian Economy 15
6. Development Experience of India – A Comparison with Neighbours (OTBA) 10
Part C Project Work 10
Total 100

OTBA

The question paper will include a Section on Open Text Based Assessment (OTBA) of 10 marks from unit-6 of Part-B. From this unit, no other questions will be asked in the theory examination. The OTBA will be asked only during the annual examination to be held in the March 2016. The open text material on the identified unit will be supplied to students in advance. The OTBA is designed to test the analytical and higher order thinking skills of students.

Part A: Statistics for Economics

In this course, you are expected to acquire skills in collection, organisation and presentation of quantitative and qualitative information pertaining to various simple economic aspects systematically. It also intends to provide some basic statistical tools to analyse, and interpret any economic information and draw appropriate inferences. In this process, you are expected to understand the behaviour of various economic data.

Unit 1: Introduction

What is Economics?

Meaning, scope and importance of statistics in Economics

Unit 2: Collection, Organisation and Presentation of Data

Collection of data – sources of data – primary and secondary; how basic data is collected; methods of collecting data; some important sources of secondary data: Census of India and National Sample Survey Organisation.

Organisation of Data: Meaning and types of variables; Frequency Distribution.

Presentation of Data: Tabular Presentation and Diagrammatic Presentation of Data: (i) Geometric forms (bar diagrams and pie diagrams), (ii) Frequency diagrams (histogram, polygon and ogive) and (iii) Arithmetic line graphs (time series graph).

Unit 3: Statistical Tools and Interpretation

Measures of Central Tendency – mean (simple and weighted), median and mode

Measures of Dispersion – absolute dispersion (range, quartile deviation, mean deviation and standard deviation); relative dispersion (co-efficient of quartile-deviation, co-efficient of mean deviation, co-efficient of variation); Lorenz Curve: Meaning and its application.

Correlation – meaning, scatter diagram; Measures of correlation – Karl Pearson’s method (two variables ungrouped data) Spearman’s rank correlation.

Introduction to Index Numbers – meaning, types – wholesale price index, consumer price index and index of industrial production, uses of index numbers; Inflation and index numbers.

Part B: Indian Economic Development

Unit 4: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991

A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Common goals of Five Year Plans.

Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy, etc.), industry (industrial licensing, etc.) and foreign trade.

Economic Reforms since 1991:

Need and main features – liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation; An appraisal of LPG policies

Unit 5: Current challenges facing Indian Economy

Poverty – absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment;

Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming – organic farming

Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India

Employment: Formal and informal, growth and other issues: Problems and policies.

Inflation: Problems and Policies

Infrastructure: Meaning and Types: Case Studies: Energy and Health: Problems and Policies- A critical assessment;

Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming.

Unit 6: Development Experience of India

A comparison with neighbours

India and Pakistan

India and China

Issues: growth, population, sectoral development and other developmental indicators.

English Core

Course Structure

Units Title Marks
Part A Statistics for Economics 
1. Introduction 13
2. Collection, Organisation and Presentation of Data
3. Statistical Tools and Interpretation 27
Part B Part B: Indian Economic Development
4. Development Experience (1947-90) and 13
Economic Reforms since 1991 12
5. Current Challenges facing Indian Economy 15
6. Development Experience of India – A Comparison with Neighbours (OTBA) 10
Part C Project Work 10
Total 100

OTBA

The question paper will include a Section on Open Text Based Assessment (OTBA) of 10 marks from unit-6 of Part-B. From this unit, no other questions will be asked in the theory examination. The OTBA will be asked only during the annual examination to be held in the March 2016. The open text material on the identified unit will be supplied to students in advance. The OTBA is designed to test the analytical and higher order thinking skills of students.

Part A: Statistics for Economics

In this course, you are expected to acquire skills in collection, organisation and presentation of quantitative and qualitative information pertaining to various simple economic aspects systematically. It also intends to provide some basic statistical tools to analyse, and interpret any economic information and draw appropriate inferences. In this process, you are expected to understand the behaviour of various economic data.

Unit 1: Introduction

What is Economics?

Meaning, scope and importance of statistics in Economics

Unit 2: Collection, Organisation and Presentation of Data

Collection of data – sources of data – primary and secondary; how basic data is collected; methods of collecting data; some important sources of secondary data: Census of India and National Sample Survey Organisation.

Organisation of Data: Meaning and types of variables; Frequency Distribution.

Presentation of Data: Tabular Presentation and Diagrammatic Presentation of Data: (i) Geometric forms (bar diagrams and pie diagrams), (ii) Frequency diagrams (histogram, polygon and ogive) and (iii) Arithmetic line graphs (time series graph).

Unit 3: Statistical Tools and Interpretation

Measures of Central Tendency – mean (simple and weighted), median and mode

Measures of Dispersion – absolute dispersion (range, quartile deviation, mean deviation and standard deviation); relative dispersion (co-efficient of quartile-deviation, co-efficient of mean deviation, co-efficient of variation); Lorenz Curve: Meaning and its application.

Correlation – meaning, scatter diagram; Measures of correlation – Karl Pearson’s method (two variables ungrouped data) Spearman’s rank correlation.

Introduction to Index Numbers – meaning, types – wholesale price index, consumer price index and index of industrial production, uses of index numbers; Inflation and index numbers.

Part B: Indian Economic Development

Unit 4: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991

A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Common goals of Five Year Plans.

Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy, etc.), industry (industrial licensing, etc.) and foreign trade.

Economic Reforms since 1991:

Need and main features – liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation; An appraisal of LPG policies

Unit 5: Current challenges facing Indian Economy

Poverty – absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment;

Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming – organic farming

Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India

Employment: Formal and informal, growth and other issues: Problems and policies.

Inflation: Problems and Policies

Infrastructure: Meaning and Types: Case Studies: Energy and Health: Problems and Policies- A critical assessment;

Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming.

Unit 6: Development Experience of India

A comparison with neighbours

India and Pakistan

India and China

Issues: growth, population, sectoral development and other developmental indicators.

English Elec.

Course Structure

S.No. Topic Marks
1 Reading Skills 20
2 Writing Skills and Grammar 30
3 Literary & Long Reading Texts 30
4 Speaking and Listening Skills 20
Total 100

Section A: Advanced Reading Skills

MCQs, very short answer and short answer questions: to test comprehension, analysis, inference, evaluation and literary appreciation

1. 450-500 words in length for note-making and summarising

2. 400-450 words in length (comprehension and vocabulary)

The passages or poems could be of any of the following types:

  • a) Factual passages, e.g., instructions, descriptions, reports.
  • b) Discursive passages involving opinion, e.g., argumentative, reflective persuasive, etc.
  • c) Literary texts, e.g., poems, extracts from fiction, biography, autobiography, travelogue, etc.

Note: In the case of a poem, the text may be shorter than 200 words or 20-24 lines.

Section B: Writing Skills and Grammar

This section will include writing tasks as indicated below:

3. Short Answer Questions: Messages, notices, e-mails (formal) and description of people.

Note: Though e-mail is included as one of the writing tasks, it is suggested that it may be tested as a part of internal or formative assessment.

4. Long Answer Question: Based on a verbal or visual input:

  • a) Official letter for making inquiries, suggesting changes, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and replies.
  • b) Letters to the editor on various social, national and international issues.

5. Very Long Answer Question: Sustained writing tasks such as writing a speech, an article for a magazine or report based on a verbal or a visual input.

Grammar

A variety of questions through MCQs and Very Short Answer type questions may be asked to test grammar items in context (not as isolated sentences). Though only modals, determiners, voice and tense forms are being dealt with in Class XI, other grammar items such as prepositions, verb forms, connectors which have been learnt earlier would also be included.

  • Drafting questions/questionnaires based on verbal/visual input
  • Composing a dialogue based on the given input
  • Recognizing consonant and vowel values in pronunciation/ sentence and word stress
  • Correction of errors in sentences

Section C: Literature Textbooks and Long Reading Texts

Questions are asked to test local and global comprehension involving interpretative, inferential, evaluative and extrapolatory skills.

  • Very Short Answer Questions: Any two out of three extracts based on different poems to test theme, setting and literary devices.
  • Short Answer Questions: Based on different prose prose / drama / poetry / peices to test Local and Global comprehension of ideas and language.
  • Long Answer Question: Based on prose or play to test comprehension of characters, actions and plot appreciation of literary conventions and reasoning.

Note: Short answer questions or long answer questions based on values can be given in the writing section or in the literature section.

  • Long Answer Questions: To test understanding, appreciation, analysis, inference in the plot of the long reading text and writing a character sketch.

Assessment of Speaking and Listening Skills (ASL)

It is recommended that speaking and listening skills should be regularly taught in the class.

Prescribed Books

  • Language Skills Book
  • Literature Reader

The Novels: (either one)

  • The Canterville Ghost by Oscar Wilde
  • Up from Slavery by Booker T. Washington

Geography

Course Structure

Part/Unit  Topic or Chapter  Marks 
Part A Fundamentals of Physical Geography 25
Unit-1 Geography as a discipline
Unit-2 The Earth
Unit-3 Landforms
Unit-4 Climate
Unit-5 Water (Oceans) – OTBA
Unit-6 Life on the Earth
Map abd Diagram 5
Part B India – Physical Environment 25
Unit-7 Introduction
Unit-8 Physiography
Unit-9 Climate, vegetation and soil
Unit-10 Natural hazards and Disasters
Map and Diagram 5
Part C Practical Work 30
Unit-1 Fundamentals of Maps 10
Unit-2 Topographic and Weather Maps 15
Practical Record Book and Viva 5

Part A: Fundamentals of Physical Geography

Unit-1: Geography as a Discipline

  • Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes.
  • Branches of Geography; PhysicalGeography and Human Geography.
  • Scope and Career Options

Unit-2: The Earth

  • Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth.
  • Wegener’s continental drift theory and plate tectonics.
  • Earthquakes and volcanoes: causes, types and effects.

Unit-3: Landforms

  • Rocks: major types of rocks and their characteristics.
  • Landforms and their evolution.
  • Geomorphic processes: weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soil-formation.

Unit 4: Climate

  • Atmosphere- composition and structure;elements of weather and climate.
  • Insolation-angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth-heating and cooling of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation and advection); temperature- factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature-horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature.
  • Pressure-pressure belts; winds-planetary, seasonal and local; air masses and fronts; tropical and extratropical cyclones.
  • Precipitation-evaporation; condensation-dew, frost,fog, mist and cloud; rainfall-types and world distribution.
  • World climates-classification (Koeppen and Thornthwaite), Global warming and climatic changes.
  • Climate and Global Concerns.

Unit 5: Hydrosphere

  • Basics of Oceanography
  • Oceans – distribution of temperature and salinity.
  • Movements of ocean water-waves, tides and currents; submarine reliefs.
  • Ocean resources and pollution.

Unit 6: Biosphere

  • Biosphere – importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystem and ecological balance.

Map work on identification of features based on 1 to 6 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of the world.

Part – B: India – Physical Environment

Unit-7: Introduction

  • Location, space relations, India’s place in the world.

Unit-8: Physiography 

  • Structure and Relief; Physiographic Divisions.
  • Drainage systems: Concept of river basins, Watershed; the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers.

Unit-9: Climate, Vegetation and Soil

  • Weather and climate – spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure winds and rainfall, Indian monsoon: mechanism, onset and withdrawal, variability of rainfalls: spatial and temporal; use of weather charts; Climatic types (Koeppen).
  • Natural vegetation-forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves.
  • Soils – major types (ICAR’s classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation.

Unit-10: Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management

  • Floods, Cloudbursts
  • Droughts: types and impact
  • Earthquakes and Tsunami
  • Cyclones: features and impact
  • Landslides

Map Work of features based on above units for locating and labelling on the Outline/Political/Physical map of India.

Part – C: Practical Work

Unit-1: Fundamentals of Maps

  • Geo spatial data, Concept of Geographicaldata matrix; Point, line, area data.
  • Maps – types; scales-types; construction of simple linear scale, measuring distance; finding direction and use of symbols.
  • Map projection – Latitude, longitude and time, typology, construction and properties of projection: Conical with one standard parallel and Mercator’s projection. (only two projections)

Unit 2: Topographic and Weather Maps

  • Study of topographic maps (1:50,000 or 1:25,000 Survey of India maps); contour cross section and identification of landforms-slopes, hills, valleys, waterfall, cliffs; distribution of settlements.
  • Aerial Photographs: Types and Geometry-vertical aerial photographs; difference between maps and aerial photographs; photo scale determination. Identification of physical and cultural features.
  • Satellite imageries, stages in remote sensing data-acquisition, platform and sensors and data products, (photographic and digital).
  • Use of weather instruments: thermometer, wet and dry-bulb thermometer, barometer, wind vane, rain gauge.

 

History

Course Structure

S.No. Units Marks
1. Introduction to World History
Section A: Early Societies 15
2. Introduction
3. From the beginning of time
4. Early Cities
Section B: Empires 20
5. Introduction
6. An empire across three continents
7. Central Islamic lands
8. Nomadic Empires
Section C: Changing Traditions 20
9. Introduction
10. Three orders
11. Changing cultural traditions
12. Confrontation of cultures
Section D: Paths to Modernization 20
13. Introduction
14. The Industrial Revolution
15. Displacing indigenous People
16. Paths to modernization
  Map work (units 1-16) 5
Project Work 20
100

1. Introduction to World History

Section A: Early Societies

2. Introduction

3. From the Beginning of Time

Focus: Africa, Europe till 15000 BC

  • (a) Views on the origin of human beings.
  • (b) Early societies.
  • (c) Historians’ views on present-day hunting-gathering societies.

4. Early Cities

Focus: Iraq, 3rd millennium BC

  • (a) Growth of towns.
  • (b) Nature of early urban societies.
  • (c) Historians’ Debate on uses of writing.

Section B: Empires

5. Introduction

6. An Empire across Three Continents

Focus: Roman Empire, 27 B.C to A.D 600.

  • (a) Political evolution
  • (b) Economic expansion
  • (c) Religion
  • (d) Late Antiquity.
  • (e) Historians’ views on the institution of Slavery.

7. Central Islamic Lands

Focus: 7th to 12th centuries

  • (a) Polity
  • (b) Economy
  • (c) Culture.
  • (d) Historians’ viewpoints on the nature of the crusades.

8. Nomadic Empires

Focus: the Mongol, 13th to 14th century

  • (a) The nature of nomadism.
  • (b) Formation of empires.
  • (c) Conquests and relations with other states.
  • (d) Historians’ views on nomadic societies and state formation.

Section C: Changing Traditions

9. Introduction

10. Three Orders

Focus: Western Europe, 13th-16th century

  • (a) Feudal society and economy.
  • (b) Formation of states.
  • (c) Church and Society.
  • (d) Historians’ views on decline of feudalism.

11. Changing Cultural Traditions

Focus on Europe, 14th to 17th century.

  • (a) New ideas, and new trends in literature and arts.
  • (b) Relationship with earlier ideas
  • (c) The contribution of West Asia.
  • (d) Historians’ viewpoints on the validity of the notion ‘European Renaissance’.

12. Confrontation of Cultures

Focus on America, 15th to 18th century.

  • (a) European voyages of exploration.
  • (b) Search for gold; enslavement, raids, extermination.
  • (c) Indigenous people and cultures – the Arawaks, the Aztecs, the Incas.
  • (d) The history of displacements.
  • (e) Historians’ viewpoints on the slave trade.

Section D: Paths to Modernization

13. Introduction

14. The Industrial Revolution

Focus on England, 18th and 19th century.

  • (a) Innovations and technological change
  • (b) Patterns of growth.
  • (c) Emergence of a working class.
  • (d) Historians’ viewpoints, Debate on ‘Was there an Industrial Revolution?’

15. Displacing Indigenous People

Focus on North America and Australia, 18th-20th century.

  • (a) European colonists in North America and Australia.
  • (b) Formation of white settler societies.
  • (c) Displacement and repression of local people.
  • (d) Historians’ viewpoints on the impact of European settlement on indigenous population.

16. Paths to Modernization

Focus on East Asia, late 19th and 20th century.

  • (a) Militarization and economic growth in Japan.
  • (b) China and the Communist alternative.
  • (c) Historians’ Debate on the meaning of modernization

17. Map Work on Units 1-16

 

Physics

Course Structure

Unit Chapter / Topic Marks
I Physical World and Measurement 23
Chapter–1: Physical World
Chapter–2: Units and Measurements
II Kinematics
Chapter–3: Motion in a Straight Line
Chapter–4: Motion in a Plane
III Laws of Motion
Chapter–5: Laws of Motion
IV Work, Energy and Power 17
Chapter–6: Work, Energy and Power
V Motion of System of Particles
Chapter–7: System of Particles and Rotational Motion
VI Gravitation
Chapter–8: Gravitation
VII Properties of Bulk Matter 20
Chapter–9: Mechanical Properties of Solids
Chapter–10: Mechanical Properties of Fluids
Chapter–11: Thermal Properties of Matter
VIII Thermodynamics
Chapter–12: Thermodynamics
IX Kinetic Theory of Gases
Chapter–13: Kinetic Theory
X Oscillation & Waves 10
Chapter–14: Oscillations
Chapter–15: Waves
Total 70

Unit I: Physical World and Measurement

Chapter–1: Physical World

Physics – scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.

Chapter–2: Units and Measurements

Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.

Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

Unit II: Kinematics

Chapter–3: Motion in a Straight Line

Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity.

Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity time and position-time graphs.

Relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

Chapter–4: Motion in a Plane

Scalar and vector quantities; Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and their notations; equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components. Scalar and Vector product of vectors.

Motion in a plane, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

Unit III: Laws of Motion

Chapter–5: Laws of Motion

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion.

Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.

Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power

Chapter–6: Work, Engery and Power

Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.

Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: motion in a vertical circle; elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

Chapter–7: System of Particles and Rotational Motion

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion.

Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of a uniform rod.

Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, laws of conservation of angular momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions.

Moment of inertia, radius of gyration.Values of moments of inertia, for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

Unit VI: Gravitation

Chapter–8: Gravitation

Keplar’s laws of planetary motion.The universal law of gravitation.

Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.

Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.

Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter

Chapter–9: Mechanical Properties of Solids

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus of rigidity, Poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.

Chapter–10: Mechanical Properties of Fluids

Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.

Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, critical velocity.Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure across a curved surface, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

Chapter–11: Thermal Properties of Matter

Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases, anomalous expansion of water; specific heat capacity; Cp, Cv – calorimetry; change of state – latent heat capacity.

Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Qualitative ideas of Blackbody radiation, Wein’s displacement Law, Stefan’s law, Green house effect.

Unit VIII: Thermodynamics

Chapter–12: Thermodynamics

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics).Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.

Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engine and refrigerator.

Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases

Chapter–13: Kinetic Theory

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done in compressing a gas.

Kinetic theory of gases – assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic interpretation of temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equi-partition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.

Unit X: Oscillations and Waves

Chapter–14: Oscillations

Periodic motion – time period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.

Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum derivation of expression for its time period.

Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

Chapter–15: Waves

Wave motion. Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.

Mathematics

Course Structure

Unit Topic Marks
I. Sets and Functions 29
II. Algebra 37
III. Co-ordinate Geometry 13
IV. Calculus 6
V. Mathematical Reasoning 3
VI. Statistics and Probability 12
Total  100

Unit-I: Sets and Functions

1. Sets

Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite and Infinite sets. Equal sets. Subsets. Subsets of a set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set. Properties of Complement Sets. Practical Problems based on sets.

2. Relations & Functions

Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the sets of real (upto R x R). Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, co-domain and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation of a function, domain, co-domain and range of a function. Real valued functions, domain and range of these functions: constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum, exponential, logarithmic and greatest integer functions, with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.

3. Trigonometric Functions

Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians and in degrees and conversion of one into other. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth of the sin2x+cos2x=1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions. Domain and range of trignometric functions and their graphs. Expressing sin (x±y) and cos (x±y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx & cosy and their simple application. Deducing identities like the following:

Identities related to sin 2x, cos2x, tan 2x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x. General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sin y = sin a, cos y = cos a and tan y = tan a.

Unit-II: Algebra

1. Principle of Mathematical Induction

Process of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.

2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations

Need for complex numbers, especially ?1, to be motivated by inability to solve some of the quardratic equations. Algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. Square root of a complex number.

3. Linear Inequalities

Linear inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Graphical solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables.

4. Permutations and Combinations

Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n. (n!)Permutations and combinations, derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.

5. Binomial Theorem

History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal’s triangle, General and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.

6. Sequence and Series

Sequence and Series. Arithmetic Progression (A.P.). Arithmetic Mean (A.M.) Geometric Progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P., Arithmetic and Geometric series infinite G.P. and its sum, geometric mean (G.M.), relation between A.M. and G.M. Formula for the following special sum:

Unit-III: Coordinate Geometry

1. Straight Lines

Brief recall of two dimensional geometry from earlier classes. Shifting of origin. Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axis, point-slope form, slope-intercept form, two-point form, intercept form and normal form. General equation of a line. Equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines. Distance of a point from a line.

2. Conic Sections

Sections of a cone: circles, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola; a point, a straight line and a pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Standard equation of a circle.

3. Introduction to Three–dimensional Geometry

Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between two points and section formula.

Unit-IV: Calculus

1. Limits and Derivatives

Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically.

Intutive idea of limit. Limits of polynomials and rational functions, trignometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Definition of derivative, relate it to slope of tangent of a curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. The derivative of polynomial and trignometric functions.

Unit-V: Mathematical Reasoning

1. Mathematical Reasoning

Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/ phrases – consolidating the understanding of “if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition”, “implies”, “and/or”, “implied by”, “and”, “or”, “there exists” and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving the connecting words difference between contradiction, converse and contrapositive.

Unit-VI: Statistics and Probability

1. Statistics

Measures of dispersion; Range, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.

2. Probability

Random experiments; outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events; occurrence of events, ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event, probability of ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events.

Political Sci

Course Structure

Unit Topic Marks
Part A: Indian Constitution at Work  
1. Philosophy of the Constitution 12
2. Rights of the Indian Constitution
3. Election and Representation 10
4. Executive
5. Legislature 10
6. Judiciary
7. Federalism 10
8. Local Governments
9. Constitution as a Living Document 8
Part B: Political Theory 
10. Political Theory : An Introduction 10
11. Freedom
12. Equality 10
13. Social Justice
14. Rights 10
15. Citizenship
16. Nationalism 10
17. Secularism
18. Peace 10
19. Development

Part A: Indian Constitution at Work

1. Philosophy of the Constitution

The making of the Constitution, the constituent Assembly, Procedural achievements and Philosophy of the Constitution.

2. Rights in the Indian Constitution

The importance of Rights, Fundamental Rights in the Indian Constitution, Directive Principles of State Policy, Relationship between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles.

3. Election and Representation

Elections and Democracy, Election System in India, Reservation of Constituencies, Free and Fair Elections, Electoral Reforms.

4. Legislature

Why do we need a Parliament? Two Houses of Parliament. Functions and Power of the Parliament, Legislative functions, control over Executive. Parliamentary committees. Self-regulation.

5. Executive

What is an Executive? Different Types of Executive. Parliamentary Executive in India, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers. Permanent Executive: Bureaucracy.

6. Judiciary

Why do we need an Independent Judiciary? Structure of the Judiciary, Judicial Activism, Judiciary and Rights, Judiciary and Parliament.

7. Federalism

What is Federalism? Federalism in the Indian Constitution, Federalism with a strong Central Government, conflicts in India’s federal system, Special Provisions.

8. Local Governments

Why do we need Local Governments? Growth of Local Government in India, 73rd and 74th Amendments, implementation of 73rd and 74th Amendments.

9. Constitution as a Living Document

Are Constitutions static? The procedure to amend the Constitution. Why have there been so many amendments? Basic Structure and Evolution of the Constitution. Constitution as a Living Document.

Part B: Political Theory

10. Political Theory: An Introduction

What is Politics? What do we study in Political Theory? Putting Political Theory to practice. Why should we study Politial Theory?

11. Freedom

The Ideal of Freedom. What is Freedom? Why do we need constraints? Harm principle. Negative and Positive Liberty.

12. Equality

Significance of Equality. What is Equality? Various dimensions of Equality. How can we promote Equality?

13. Social Justice

What is Justice? Just Distribution. Justice as fairness. Pursuing Social Justice.

14. Rights

What are Rights? Where do Rights come from? Legal Rights and the State. Kinds of Rights. Rights and Responsibilities.

15. Citizenship

What is citizenship? Citizen and Nation, Universal Citizenship, Global Citizenship.

16. Nationalism

Nations and Nationalism, National Self-determination, Nationalism and Pluralism.

17. Secularism

What is Secularism? What is Secular State? The Western and the Indian approaches to Secularism. Criticisms and Rationale of Indian Secularism.

18. Peace

What is Peace? Can violence ever promote peace? Peace and the State. Different Approaches to the pursuit of peace. Contemporary challenges to peace.

19. Development

What is development? Criticism of the dominant. Development Model. Alternative conceptions of development.

Prescribed Books:

  1. Indian Constitution at work, Class XI, Published by NCERT
  2. Political Theory, Class XI, Published by NCERT

 

Sociology

Course Structure

Unit Topic Marks
A Introducing Sociology 34
1 Society, Sociology and relationship with other social sciences
2 Basic Concepts
3 Social Institutions
4 Culture and Society
5 Practical Sociology: Methods & Techniques
B Understanding Society 46
6 Structure, Process and Stratification
7 Social Change
8 Environment and Society
9 Western Social Thinkers
10 Indian Sociologists
80

A. Introducing Sociology

Unit 1: Society and Sociology and Relationship with other Social Sciences

  • Introducing Society: Individuals and collectivities. Plural Perspectives
  • Introducing Sociology: Emergence. Nature and Scope. Relationship to other disciplines

Unit 2: Basic Concepts

  • Social Groups
  • Status and Role
  • Social Stratification
  • Social Control

Unit 3: Social Institutions

  • Family, Marriage and Kinship
  • Political and Economic Institutions
  • Religion as a Social Institution
  • Education as a Social Institution

Unit 4: Culture and Society

  • Culture, Values and Norms: Shared, Plural, Contested
  • Socialization: Conformity, Conflict and the Shaping of Personality

Unit 5: Practical in Sociology: Methods and Techniques

  • Methods: Participant Observation, Survey
  • Tools and Techniques: Observation, Interview, Questionaire
  • The Significance of Field Work in Sociology

B. Understanding Society

Unit 6: Structure, Process and Stratification

  • Social Structure
  • Social Processes: Cooperation, Competition, Conflict
  • Social Stratification: Class, Caste, Race, Gender

Unit 7: Social Change

  • Social Change: Types and Dimensions; Causes and Consequences
  • Social Order: Domination, Authority and Law; Contestation, Crime and Violence
  • Village, Town and City: Changes in Rural and Urban Society

Unit 8: Environment and Society

  • Ecology and Society
  • Environmental Crises and Social Responses

Unit 9: Western Social Thinkers

  • Karl Marx on Class Conflict
  • Emile Durkheim on Division of Labour
  • Max Weber on Bureaucracy

Unit 10: Indian Sociologists

  • G.S. Ghurye on Race and Caste
  • D.P. Mukherjee on Tradition and Change
  • A.R. Desai on the State
  • M.N. Srinivas on the Village

 

 

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